Effectiveness evaluation and measurement of change
Modeling of intra-individual changes -- e.g. changes in aggressive behavior as a consequence of an anti-aggression training -- and testing hypotheses concerning such changes require specific methodological approaches, which take into account that data from one person over several measurements are not independent. Even in the simplest case, the analysis of differences between two measurement occasions, consequences stemming from the non-independence of the data have been misunderstood (e.g. the claim that difference scores are inherently unreliable). In our work we try to identify appropriate methods for the assessment of change and pay attention to the pitfalls that are specific to the analysis of change.
We apply these methods to evaluations of therapeutic interventions and primary prevention programs (for instance, social competence or anti aggression trainings). In this context, we also address measurement issues (e.g., the choice of criterion measures: the implicit aggressiveness test as an implicit measure for the implicit aggressive self-concept).
Lemmer, G., Gollwitzer, M., Schiller, E.-M., Strohmeier, D., Banse, R., & Spiel, C. (2015). On the psychometric properties of the Aggressiveness-IAT for children and adolescents. Aggressive Behavior, 41, 84-95.
Gollwitzer, M., Christ, O., & Lemmer, G. (2014). Individual differences make a difference: On the use and the psychometric properties of difference scores in social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 673-682.
Ebert, D. D., Gollwitzer, M., Riper, H., Cuipers, P., Baumeister, H., & Berking, M. (2013). For whom does it work? Moderators of outcome from a transdiagnostic internet-based maintenance treatment after inpatient psychotherapy in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(10), e191. doi: 10.2196/jmir.2511
Göllner, R., Gollwitzer, M., Heider, J., Zaby, A., & Schröder, A. (2010). Auswertung von Längsschnittdaten mit hierarchischen linearen Modellen [Analyzing longitudinal data with hierarchical linear models]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 39, 179-188.
Gollwitzer, M., Banse, R., Eisenbach, K., & Naumann, A. (2007). Effectiveness of the Vienna Social Competence Training on explicit and implicit aggression: Evidence from an Aggressiveness-IAT. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 23, 150-156.