Lehrstuhl für Entwicklungspsychologie

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In Press

Christner, N., Pletti, C., & Paulus, M. (in press). How does the moral self-concept relate to prosocial behaviour? Investigating the role of emotions and consistency-preference. Cognition and Emotion.

Christner, N., Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (in press). Normative views and resource distribution behavior in childhood: Dissociated at the group level, but associated at the individual level. International Journal of Behavioral Development.

Essler, S. & Paulus, M. (in press). Caregivers’ Everyday Moral Reasoning Predicts Young Children’s Aggressive, Prosocial, and Moral Development: Evidence from Ambulatory Assessment. Infancy.

Misch, A., Paulus, M., & Dunham, Y. (in press). Anticipation of future collaboration overrides minimal ingroup bias in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology General.


Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2022). Maternal emotional availability relates to two-year-olds’ behavior in a challenging cooperative interaction. Infant Behavior and Development, 67, 101696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2022.101696

Menzel, S., & Paulus, M. (2022). The ontogeny of efficient second-order action planning: The developing interplay of controlled and habitual processes in goal-directed actions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105339

Paulus, M. (2022). Should infant psychology rely on the violation-of-expectation method? Not anymore. Infant and Child Development, 31 (1), https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.2306

Pletti, C., Decety, J., & Paulus, M. (2022). Neural processing of moral content reflects moral identity in 10‐year‐old children. Developmental Science. DOI:10.1111/desc.13232


Christner, N., Essler, S., Hazzam, A., & Paulus, M. (2021). Children’s psychological well-being and problem behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: An online study during the lockdown period in Germany. PLOS ONE, 16(6): e0253473. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253473

Essler, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). Robin Hood or Matthew? Children’s reasoning about redistributive justice in the context of economic inequalities. Child Development, 92(4), 1254-1273.

Essler, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). When do caregivers begin to view their child as a moral agent? Comparing moral and non-moral reactions to young children’s moral transgressions. Journal of Moral Education, 50(3), 330-342.

Essler, S., Christner, N., & Paulus, M. (2021). Longitudinal relations between parental strain, parent-child relationship quality and child well-being during the unfolding COVID-19 pandemic. Child Psychiatry & Human Development. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01232-4

Ganglmayer, K., Haupt, M., Finke, K. & Paulus, M. (2021). Adults, but not preschoolers or toddlers integrate situational constraints in their action anticipations: A developmental study on the flexibility of anticipatory gaze. Cognitive Processing, 22(3), 515–528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-021-01015-8

Gönül, G., & Paulus, M. (2021). Children's reasoning about the efficiency of others' actions: The development of rational action prediction. Journal of experimental child psychology, 204, 105035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.105035

Gönul, G., Tsalas, N., & Paulus, M. (2021). The effect of time pressure on metacognitive control: developmental changes in self-regulation and efficiency during learning. Metacognition and Learning, 16 (3), DOI: 10.1007/s11409-021-09262-y

Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2021). Maternal sensitivity and non-intrusiveness at 12 months predict attention to emotional facial expressions at 24 months: A cross-lagged panel approach. Social Development, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12561

Kim, S., Senju, A., Sodian, B., Paulus, M., Itakura, S., Okuno, A., Ueno, M., & Proust, J. (2021). Memory Monitoring and Control in Japanese and German Preschoolers. Memory & cognition, 10.3758/s13421-021-01263-1. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01263-1

Kloo, D., Sodian, B., Kristen-Antonow, S., Kim, S. & Paulus, M. (2021). Knowing minds: Linking early perspective taking and later metacognitive insight. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 39-53, DOI: 10.1111/bjdp.12359

Lenz, S. & Paulus, M. (2021). Friendship is more than strategic reciprocity: Preschoolers' selective sharing with friends cannot be reduced to strategic concerns. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 206 (2), DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105101

Lenz, S., Essler, S., Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2021). “Who will share with me?”: Preschoolers rely on their friends more than on their nonfriends to share with them. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 203, 105037.

Melzel, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). The development of the prediction of complex actions in early childhood. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18 (2), 161-183, https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2020.1773786

Misch, A., Kristen-Antonow, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). A question of morals? The role of moral identity in support of the youth climate movement Fridays4Future. PLoS ONE.

Misch, A., Paulus, M., & Dunham, Y. (2021). Anticipation of future cooperation eliminates minimal ingroup bias in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 150(10), 2036–2056. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000899

Nijssen, S., Pletti, C., Paulus, M., Müller, B. (2021) Does agency matter? Neural processing of robotic movements in 4- and 8-year olds. Neuropsychologia 157, 107853. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.107853

Nijssen, S.R.R, Müller, B.C.N., Bosse, T., & Paulus, M. (2021). You, robot? The role of anthropomorphic emotion attributions in children’s sharing with a robot. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 30, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2021.100319

Opitz, T., Schuwerk, T., Paulus, M., Kloo, D., Osterhaus, C., Lesch, K.-P. & Sodian, B. (2021). No links between genetic variation and developing theory of mind: A preregistered replication attempt of candidate gene studies. Developmental Science, 24 (9), DOI:10.1111/desc.13100

Pfundmair, M., Paulus, M., & Wagner, E. (2021). Activism and radicalism in adolescence: an empirical test on age-related differences. Psychology, Crime and Law, 27 (8), 815-830, https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2020.1850725

Sticker, R. M., Christner, N., Pletti, C., & Paulus, M. (2021). The moral self-concept in preschool children: Its dimensions and relation to prosocial behaviors. Cognitive Development, 58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2021.101033


Christner, N., Pletti, C., & Paulus, M. (2020). Emotion understanding and the moral self-concept as motivators of prosocial behavior in middle childhood. Cognitive Development, 55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2020.100893

Christner, N., Sticker, R. M., Söldner, L., Mammen, M., & Paulus, M. (2020). Prevention for oneself or others? Psychological and social factors that explain social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Health Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105320980793

Essler, S., Lepach, A. C., Petermann, F., & Paulus, M. (2020). Equality, equity, or inequality duplication? How preschoolers distribute necessary and luxury resources between rich and poor others. Social Development, 29(1), 110-125.

Essler, S., Wörle, M., Moore, C., & Paulus, M. (2020). Preschoolers’ sharing expectations towards friends relate to their kindergarten peer status. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 38(1), 1-14.

Filevich, E., Garcia Folim, C., Fehrmann, C., Forster, C., Paulus, M., Shing, Y.L., & Kühn, S. (2020). I know that I know nothing: Cortical thickness and functional connectivity underyling meta-ignorance ability in pre-schoolers. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 41, 100738.

Ganglmayer, K., Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2020). Do children and adults with autism spectrum condition anticipate others’ actions as goal-directed? A predictive coding perspective. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50, 2077-2089.

Kammermeier, M., Duran Perez, L., König, L. & Paulus, M. (2020). Attachment security and attention to facial emotional expressions in preschoolers: An eye‐tracking study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12313

Kim, S., Paulus, M., Sodian, B., & Proust, J. (2020). Children’s prior experiences of their successes and failures modulate belief alignment. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 664-678.

Kim, S., Sodian, B., Paulus, M., Senju, A., Okuno, A., Ueno, M., Itakura, S., & Proust, J. (2020). Metacognition and mindreading in young children: A cross-cultural study. Consciousness and Cognition, 85, 103017.

Melzel, S., Paulus, M. (2020). The development of the prediction of complex actions in early childhood. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 161-183, DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2020.1773786

Paulus, M. (2020). Die Einheit der Psychologie ist die Basis der Entwicklungspsychologie. Psychologische Rundschau, 71, 44-46. (Kommentar zu Daum et al., Positionspapier der Fachgruppe Entwicklungspsychologie: Ein Versuch einer Standortbestimmung)

Paulus, M. (2020). How do young children become moral agents? A developmental perspective. In J. Decety (Ed.), The social brain: A developmental perspective. MIT Press.

Paulus, M. (2020). Is young children’s helping affected by helpees’ need? Preschoolers, but not infants selectively help needy others. Psychological Research, 84, 1440-1450.

Paulus, M. (2020). Sind kleine Kinder Wissenschaftler und Philosophen? Eine kritische Erörterung aus entwicklungspsychologischer Perspektive. In C. Heinrich, D. Berner-Zumpf, & M. Teichert (Hrsg.), „Alle Tassen fliegen hoch!“: Eine Kritik der Kinderphilosophie (S. 76-91). Weinheim: Beltz.

Paulus, M. (2020). The developmental emergence of morality: A review of current theoretical perspectives. Progress of Brain Research, 254, 205-223.

Paulus, M., & Essler, S. (2020). Why do preschoolers perpetuate inequalities? Theoretical perspectives on inequity preferences in the face of emerging concerns for equality. Developmental Review, 58, 100933.

Paulus, M., Christner, N., & Wörle, M. (2020). The normative status of friendship: Do young children enforce sharing with friends and appreciate reasonable partiality? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104826

Paulus, M., Erbe, J., Wolfsperger, J., Essler, S., & Wörle, M. (2020). Originalarbeit: Prosoziales Verhalten bei Vorschulkindern mit Sprachentwicklungsstörungen. Eine explorative Studie. Frühförderung interdisziplinär, 39(3), 120-136.

Paulus, M., Wörle, M., & Christner, N. (2020). The emergence of human altruism: Preschool children develop a norm for empathy-based comforting. Journal of Cognition and Development, 21, 104-124.

Pletti, C., Paulus, M. (2020) Neural processing of equitable and inequitable distributions in 5-year-old children. Social Neuroscience 15 (5), 584-599. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2020.1816578

Schuwerk, T., Bätz, J., Träuble, B., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2020). Do ostensive cues affect object processing in children with and without autism? A test of natural pedagogy theory. Psychological Research, 84, 2248-2261.

Wörle, M., Essler, S., & Paulus, M. (2020). Paying it back and forward: The impact of experiencing and observing others’ sharing and stinginess on preschoolers’ own sharing behavior and expectations. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 198, 104886.


Burgstaller, J., Paulus, M., & Pfundmair, M. (2019). Oxytocin promotes action prediction. Hormones and Behavior, 107, 46-48.

Dahl, A., & Paulus, M. (2019). From interest to obligation: The gradual development of human altruism. Child Development Perspectives, 13, 10-14.

Ganglmayer, K., Attig, M., Daum, M.M., & Paulus, M. (2019). Infants’ perception of goal-directed actions: A multi-lab replication reveals that infants anticipate paths and not goals. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, 101340.

Nijssen, S.R.R., Müller, B.C.N., van Baaren, R.B., & Paulus, M. (2019). Saving the robot or the human? Robots who feel deserve moral care. Social Cognition, 37, 41-S2.

Paulus, M. (2019). Psychosexuelle und soziale Entwicklung. In D. Urhahne, M. Dresel, & F. Fischer (Eds.), Psychologie für den Lehrberuf (S. 253-272). Heidelberg: Springer.

Paulus, M. (2019). Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie. München: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag.

Paulus, M., & Wörle, M. (2019). Young children protest against the incorrect use of novel words: Towards a normative pragmatic account on language acquisition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 180, 113-122.

Paulus, M., Wörle, M., & Christner, N. (2019). The emergence of human altruism: Preschool children develop a norm for empathy-based comforting. Journal of Cognition and Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2019.1693375

Pletti C., Decety, J., Paulus, M. (2019). Moral identity relates to the neural processing of third-party moral behavior. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 14 (4), 435-445. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsz016.

Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2019). Normative foundations of reciprocity in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology


Paulus, M. (2018). Preschool children's and adults' expectations about interpersonal space. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, No. 2479.
Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2018). Do action-based tasks evidence false-belief understanding in young children? Cognitive Development, 46, 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.11.004

Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2018). Stichwort: Kooperatives Handeln. Frühförderung interdisziplinär, 37(3), 151-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.2378/fi2018.art23d

Kim, S., Paulus, M., Sodian, B., Itakura, S., Ueno, M., Senju, A., & Proust, J. (2018). Selective learning and teaching among Japanese and German children. Developmental Psychology, 54, 536-542.

Müller B.C.N., Marx, A.K.G., Paulus, M., & Meinhardt, J. (2018). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry relates to implicit achievement motivation: A pilot study. Mind, Brain, and Education, 12, 82-89.

Nunner-Winkler, G., & Paulus, M. (2018). Prosoziale und moralische Entwicklung. In W. Schneider & U. Lindenberger (Eds.), Entwicklungspsychologie (S. 537-557). Weinheim: Beltz.

Paulus, M. (2018). The multidimensional nature of early prosocial behavior: a motivational perspective. Current Opinion in Psychology, 20, 111-116.

Paulus, M., & Kammermeier, M. (2018). How to deal with a failed replication of the Duplo task? A response to Rubio-Fernández (2019). Cognitive Development, 48, 217-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2018.07.005

Paulus, M., & Schmidt, M.F.H. (2018). The early development of the normative mind. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 165, 1-6. (Editorial for special issue)

Paulus, M., Licata, M., Gniewosz, B., & Sodian, B. (2018). The impact of mother-child interaction quality and cognitive abilities on children’s self-concept and self-esteem. Cognitive Development, 48, 42-51.

Paulus, M., Nöth, A., & Wörle, M. (2018). Preschoolers' resource allocations align with their normative judgments. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 175, 117-126.

Sabbagh, M.A., & Paulus, M. (2018). Replication studies of implicit false belief with infants and toddlers. Cognitive Development, 46, 1-3. (Editorial for special issue)

Schuwerk, T., & Paulus, M. (2018). Action Prediction in Autism. In F. R. Volkmar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. New York, NY: Springer New York.

Tsalas, N.R.H., Müller, B.C.N., Meinhardt, J., Proust, J., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2018). An ERP study on metacognitive monitoring processes in children. Brain Research, 1652, 170-177.

Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2018). Normative expectations about fairness: The development of a charity norm in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 165, 66-84.


Kim, S., Paulus, M., & Kalish, C. (2017). Young children’s reliance on information from inaccurate informants. Cognitive Science, 41, 601-621.

Müller, B., Meinhardt, J., & Paulus, M. (2017). Embodied simulation of others being touched in 1-year-old infants. Developmental Neuropsychology, 42, 198-205.

Paulus, M. (2017). Die Psychologie der Wohltätigkeit. In M. Klöcker & U. Tworuschka (Hrsg.), Handbuch der Religionen. Kirchen und andere Glaubensgemeinschaften in Deutschland und im deutschsprachigen Raum (53. EL, XIV - 4.1.). Mediengruppe

Paulus, M. (2017). How to dax? Preschool children’s prosocial behavior, but not their social norm enforcement relates to their peer status. Frontiers in Psychology 8: 1779.

Paulus, M., & Leitherer, M. (2017). Preschoolers’ social experiences and empathy-based responding relate to their fair resource allocation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 161, 202-210.

Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2017). Preschoolers’ generosity increases with understanding of the affective consequences of sharing. Developmental Science, 20, e12417.

Paulus, M., & Rosal-Grifoll, B. (2017). Helping and sharing in preschool children with autism. Experimental Brain Research, 235, 2081-2088.

Paulus, M., Jung, N., O’Driscoll, K., & Moore, C. (2017). Toddlers involve their caregiver to help another person in need. Infancy, 22, 645-664.

Paulus, M., Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Ganglmayer, K. (2017). Childrens’ and adults’ use of verbal information to visually anticipate others’ actions: A study on explicit and implicit social-cognitive processing. Cognition, 160, 145-152.

Pfundmair, M., Zwarg, C., Paulus, M., & Rimpel, A. (2017). Oxytocin promotes attention to social cues regardless of group membership. Hormones and Behavior, 90, 136-140.

Pletti, C., Scheel, A., & Paulus, M. (2017). Intrinsic altruism or social motivation–What does pupil dilation tell us about children's helping behavior? Frontiers in psychology, 8, 2089. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02089.

Scharpf, F., Paulus, M., & Wörle, M. (2017). The impact of social relationships on Ugandan children’s sharing decisions. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 436-448.

Tsalas, N., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2017). Correlates of metacognitive control in 10-year old children and adults. Metacognition and Learning, 12, 297-314.


Aldaqre, I., Schuwerk, T., Daum, M., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2016). Sensitivity to communicative and non-communicative gestures in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Experimental Brain Research, 234, 2515-2527.

Cuevas, K., & Paulus, M. (2016). The development of action mirroring. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34, 1-5.

Kim, S., Paulus, M., Sodian, B., & Proust, J. (2016). Young children’s sensitivity to their own ignorance in informing others. PLoS One 11(3): e0152595.

Kühn-Popp, N., Kristen, S., Paulus, M., Meinhardt, J., & Sodian, B. (2016). Left hemisphere EEG coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language. Social Neuroscience, 11, 49-59.

Müller, B.C.N., Tsalas, N.R.H., van Schie, H. T., Meinhardt, J., Proust, J., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2016). Neural correlates of judgments of learning - An ERP study on metacognition. Brain Research, 1652, 170-177.

Paulus, M. (2016). Friendship trumps neediness: The impact of social relations and others’ wealth on preschool children’s sharing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 146, 106-120.

Paulus, M. (2016). It’s payback time: Preschoolers selectively request resources from someone they had benefitted. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1299-1306.

Paulus, M. (2016). The development of action planning in a joint action context. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1052-1063.

Paulus, M., Becker, E., Scheub, A., & König, L. (2016). Preschool children’s attachment security is associated with their sharing with others. Attachment & Human Development, 18, 1-15.

Paulus, M., Murillo, E., & Sodian, B. (2016). When the body reveals the mind: Children’s use of others’ body orientation to understand their focus of attention. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 148, 101-118.

Schuwerk, T., & Paulus, M. (2016). Children, adolescents, and adults visually anticipate an agent’s efficient action; but only after having observed it frequently. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 800-816.

Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2016). Cognitive mechanisms underlying action prediction in children and adults with autism spectrum condition. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 3623-3639.

Sodian, B., Licata, M., Kristen, S., Paulus, M., Killen, M., & Woodward, A. (2016). Understanding of goals, beliefs, and desires predicts morally relevant Theory of Mind: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 87, 1221-1232.

Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2016). Helfen, teilen, trösten: Die Entwicklung prosozialen Verhaltens. Kindergarten heute, 46, 16-22.


Aldaqre, I., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Referential gaze and word learning in adults with autism. Autism, 9, 944-955. doi: 10.1177/1362361314556784

Licata, M., Paulus, M., Kühn-Popp, N., Meinhardt, J., & Sodian, B. (2015). Infant frontal asymmetry predicts child emotional availability. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39, 492-496. doi: 10.1177/0165025415576816

Müller, B.C.N., Kühn-Popp, N., Meinhardt, J., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2015). Long-term stability in children’s frontal EEG alpha asymmetry between 14-months and 83-months. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 41, 110-114. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.01.002

Paulus, M. (2015). Children’s inequity aversion depends on culture: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 240-246. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.12.007

Paulus, M. (2015). Cognitive development: The neurocognitive basis of early prosociality. Current Biology, 25, 47-48. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.023

Paulus, M. (2015). Psychological and neural correlates of the emergence of morality in toddlers. Proceedings of the National Academcy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 12551-12552. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516744112

Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2015). Preschool children’s anticipation of recipients’ emotions affects their resource allocations. Social Development, 24, 852-867. doi: 10.1111/sode.12126

Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Which way to take? Infants select an efficient path to their goal. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 137, 111-124. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.03.014

Paulus, M., Kim, S., & Sodian, B. (2015). Clarifying the range of social-cognitive processes subserving human teaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, e55. (commentary) doi: 10.1017/S0140525X14000569

Paulus, M., Licata, M., Kristen, S., Thoermer, C., Woodward, A., & Sodian, B. (2015). Early social understanding and self-regulation predict preschoolers’ sharing with friends and disliked peers: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39, 53-64. doi: 10.1177/0165025414537923

Tsalas, N., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Developmental changes and the effect of self- generated feedback in metacognitively controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 140-154. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.01.008

Verschoor, S.A., Paulus, M., Spape, M., Biro, S., & Hommel, B. (2015). The developing cognitive substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: Evidence for concurrent activation models. Cognition, 138, 64-78. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.01.005


Kim, S., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2014). “Does he need help or can he help himself?” Preschool children’s expectations about others’ instrumental helping versus self-helping. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 430. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00430

Licata, M., Paulus, M., Thoermer, C., Kristen, S., Woodward, A., & Sodian, B. (2014). Mother- infant-interaction quality and infants’ ability to encode actions as goal-directed. Social Development, 23, 340-356. doi: 10.1111/sode.12057

Paulus, M. (2014). Die frühkindliche Entwicklung sozial-kognitiver und metakognitiver Fertigkeiten: Empirische Befunde, theoretische Kontroversen und Implikationen für die Ontogenese des Selbstbewusstseins. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 62, 879-912. doi: 10.1515/dzph-2014-0059

Paulus, M. (2014). How and why do infants imitate? An ideomotor approach to social and imitative learning in infancy (and beyond). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1139-1156. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0598-1

Paulus, M. (2014). The early origins of human charity: Preschoolers share more with poor than wealthy individuals. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 344. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00344

Paulus, M. (2014). The emergence of prosocial behavior: Why do infants and toddlers help, comfort, and share? Child Development Perspectives, 8, 77-81. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12066

Paulus, M. (2014). The ideomotor approach to imitative learning (IMAIL) in infancy: Challenges and future perspectives. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 662-673. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2014.914432

Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2014). Conflicting social cues: 14- and 24-month-old infants’ reliance on gaze and pointing cues in word learning. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 43-59. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2012.698435

Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2014). The development of sharing behavior and expectations about other people’s sharing in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 50, 914-921. http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=2013-30632-001

Paulus, M., Tsalas, N., Proust, J., & Sodian, B. (2014). Metacognitive monitoring of oneself and others: Developmental changes in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 122, 153-165. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.12.011

Uithol, S., & Paulus, M. (2014). What do infants understand of others’ action? A theoretical account of early social cognition. Psychological Research, 78, 609-622. doi: 10.1007/s00426-013-0519-3


Moore, C., & Paulus, M. (2013). A second-person approach cannot explain intentionality in social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 430-431. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X12001987

Paulus, M., & Kiraly, I. (2013). Early rationality in action perception and production? – A theoretical exposition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 407-414. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.01.001

Paulus, M., Gillis, S., Li, J., & Moore, C. (2013). Preschool children involve a third party in a dyadic sharing situation based on fairness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.014

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. (2013). Examining functional mechanisms of imitative learning in infancy: Does teleological reasoning affect infants’ imitation beyond motor resonance? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 487-498. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.10.009

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. (2013). Neurocognitive mechanisms subserving social learning in infancy: Infants’ neural processing of the effects of others’ actions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 774-779. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss065

Paulus, M., Kühn-Popp, N., Licata, M., Sodian, B., & Meinhardt, J. (2013). Neural correlates of prosocial behavior in infancy: Different neurophysiological mechanisms support the emergence of helping and comforting. NeuroImage, 66, 522-530. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.041

Paulus, M., Proust, J., & Sodian, B. (2013). Examining implicit metacognition in 3.5-year-old children: An eye-tracking and pupillometric study. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 145. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00145


Bergmann, C., Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2012). Preschoolers’ comprehension of pronouns and reflexives: The impact of the task. Journal of Child Language, 39, 777-803. doi: 10.1017/S0305000911000298

Hauf, P., Paulus, M., & Baillargeon, R. (2012). Infants use compression information to infer object weight: Examining cognition, exploration, and prospective action in a preferential-reaching task. Child Development, 83, 1978-1995. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01824.x

Paulus, M. (2012). Action mirroring and action understanding: An ideomotor and attentional account. Psychological Research, 76, 760-767. doi:10.1007/s00426-011-0385-9

Paulus, M. (2012). Is it rational to assume that infants imitate rationally? A theoretical analysis and critique. Human Development, 55, 107-121. (Target article with invited peer commentaries). doi: 10.1159/000339442

Paulus, M., & Hauf, P. (2012). Reaching preferences in 11-month-old infants: The case of objects’ material and weight. International Journal of Developmental Science, 6, 87-96. doi: 10.3233/DEV-2011-11069

Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2012). Producing and understanding prosocial actions in early childhood. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 42, 275-309. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394388-0.00008

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., van Elk, M., & Bekkering, H. (2012). How learning to shake a rattle affects 8-month-old infants’ perception of the rattle’s sound: Electrophysiological evidence for action-effect binding in infancy. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2011.05.006

Paulus, M., van Elk, M., & Bekkering, H. (2012). Acquiring functional object knowledge through motor imagery? Experimental Brain Research, 218, 181-188. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3061-4


Hauf, P., & Paulus, M. (2011). Experience matters: 11-month-old infants can learn to use material information to predict the weight of novel objects. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 467-471. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.05.002

Paulus, M. (2011). How infants relate looker and object: Evidence for a perceptual learning account on gaze following in infancy. Developmental Science, 14, 1301-1310. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01076.x
Paulus, M. (2011). Imitation in infancy: Conceptual considerations. Theory & Psychology, 21, 849-856.doi: 10.1177/0959354310395990

Paulus, M., & Hauf, P. (2011). Infants’ use of material information to guide their actions with differently weighted objects. Infant and Child Development, 20, 423-436. doi: 10.1002/icd.704

Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2011). Whom to ask for help? Children’s developing understanding of other people’s action capabilities. Experimental Brain Research, 211, 593-600. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2676-1

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Can 14- to 20-month-old children learn that a tool serves multiple purposes? A developmental study on children’s action goal prediction. Vision Research, 51, 955-960. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2010.12.012

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., van Wijngaard, C., Vrins, S., van Rooij, I., & Bekkering, H. (2011). The role of frequency information and teleological reasoning in infants' and adults' action prediction. Developmental Psychology, 47, 976-983. doi: 10.1037/a0023785

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., Vissers, M., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Bridging the gap between the other and me: The functional role of motor resonance and action effects in infants' imitation. Developmental Science, 14, 901-910. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01040.x

Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., Vissers, M., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Imitation in infancy: Rational or motor resonance? Child Development, 82, 1047-1057. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01610.x

Paulus, M., van Dam, W., Hunnius, S., Lindemann, O., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Action-effect binding by observational learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1022-1028. doi: 10.3758/s13423-011-0136-3

van Elk, M., Paulus, M., Pfeiffer, C., van Schie, H.T., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Learning to use novel objects: A training study on the acquisition of novel action representations. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 1304-1314. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2011.03.014


Bergmann, C., Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2010). A closer look at pronoun comprehension: comparing different methods. In: J. Costa, A. Castro, M. Lobo & F. Pratas (eds), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2009 (p. 53-61). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000F-5A58-2

Meyer, M., Bekkering, H., Paulus, M., & Hunnius, S. (2010). Joint action coordination in 2.5- and 3-year-old children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 220. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2010.00220

Paulus, M., & Rodarius, D. (2010). Leben in einer Schriftsprachkultur: Psychologische und soziologische Perspektiven. In: J. Bothe & Bundesverband Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung e. V. (Hrsg.), Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung, Band 4. Münster/New York/München/Berlin: Waxmann.


Paulus, M., Lindemann, O., & Bekkering, H. (2009). Motor simulation in verbal knowledge acquisition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 2298-2305. doi: 10.1080/17470210903108405

Paulus, M., & Rodarius, D. (2009). Sprache als strukturelles Element. Über psychologische und soziologische Mechanismen der In- und Exklusion durch Sprache sowie ihre Konsequenzen für die Alphabetisierungsarbeit. In: J. Bothe & Bundesverband Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung e. V. (Hrsg.), Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung in Deutschland. Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung, Band 3. Münster/New York/München/Berlin: Waxmann.